Objectives To judge the prevalence and determinants of stress and anxiety

Objectives To judge the prevalence and determinants of stress and anxiety and despair also to assess their effect on glycaemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. CI 0.85 to at least one 1.63). A combined mix of depressive symptoms and stress and anxiety symptoms was connected with poor glycaemic control (comparative excess risk because of relationship: 4.93, 95% CI 2.09 to 7.87; attributable percentage due to relationship: 0.27, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). Conclusions There Hupehenine manufacture is a higher prevalence of depressive and stress and anxiety symptoms within this Chinese sample of participants, although depression and anxiety were Neurog1 not singly associated with glycaemic control. However, a combination of depressive and anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with glycaemic control in participants Hupehenine manufacture with type 2 diabetes. reported that marital status was associated with depression prevalence;37 this is consistent with the present results. The older a person is, the more likely they are to be a widow or widower. Older people are therefore more likely to be single and to experience psychological disorders. Complications of diabetes are associated with depression46 and we found that this was an independent predictor of depressive symptoms. Diabetes complications such as sexual dysfunction, painful peripheral neuropathy, neuropathy and nephropathy may increase susceptibility to depression.50 51 Previous cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are inconclusive regarding the associations between anxiety or depressive symptoms and glycaemic control. Some studies have reported that anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with poorer glycaemic control.52C54 Consistent with our Hupehenine manufacture own results, other studies have found no association between anxiety or depressive symptoms and glycaemic control.55C58 However, our findings indicate a combined impact of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms on glycaemic control. One possibility is that the coexistence of depressive and anxiety symptoms aggravates the dysregulation of the hypothalamicCpituitaryCadrenal axis,52 59 resulting in elevated blood glucose. The dysregulation of the hypothalamicCpituitaryCadrenal axis is weaker when experiencing anxiety or depression singly; this impairs diabetes self-management but does not necessarily lead to poor blood sugar control. The strengths of the current study are that we used a community-based multistage sampling design, large sample size and randomly selected participants. However, the study has several limitations. First, the cross-sectional design does not allow us to determine causal relationships between depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and poor glycaemic control. Second, it is possible that some participants were misclassified, as self-report instruments were used to assess anxiety and depression symptoms. Third, we did not measure dietary intake, which may partly contribute to anxiety and depression.60 61 Conclusions In summary, our study revealed a high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a large sample of the Chinese population suffering from T2DM. Female patients and those with poor sleep quality Hupehenine manufacture were more likely to show depressive and anxiety symptoms. In addition, anxiety symptoms were more frequent in participants with low income and chronic diseases, and depressive symptoms were more frequent in older, single participants, and those with low educational level and diabetes complications. Depressive or anxiety symptoms are not singly associated with poor glycaemic control in patients with T2DM; however, there is a combined impact of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms on poor glycaemic control. It is necessary to screen depressive and anxiety Hupehenine manufacture symptoms using psychiatric diagnoses to prevent and control these symptoms in patients with T2DM. Footnotes Contributors: NS participated in writing the title and abstract, reviewed the text and contributed to writing of the title, abstract and manuscript. PL conceived the study, participated in the study design, writing the title and abstract, editing the text, data extraction and analysis, and drafting the manuscript. YS and PZ performed literature searches, participated in writing the title and abstract and reviewing the text, and contributed to the manuscript drafts. JW, GC and CS were the lead authors of the original review, responsible for the conception of the study and contributed to the manuscript drafts. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Funding: This research was funded by.

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