Fischer RA, Wheat physiology: a review of recent developments. yield improvements. ? 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. (Borgo Santo Pietro, Italy), var. and (Argentina), var. (Marsiliana, Italy) and var. (Simandre, France). Drought stress occurrence, timing and level were estimated by considering (a) the difference between actual precipitation and long\term average precipitation for the crop\growing period, and (b) the yield reduction compared with nonstressed plants of the same variety (in the case of irrigation) or versus optimal varietal characteristics known for favorable nonstressed conditions and/or year in the same geographical location. A single application of benzovindiflupyr formulated as EC 100 at 75 g ai ha\1 was performed with a hand\held boom or motorized knapsack sprayers at 200\300 L ha\1 when plants were at BBCH 39 or 55. Control plants were untreated. 3.?Results 3.1. Laboratory experiments In order to study the effect of benzovindiflupyr on leaf transpiration, a detached leaf assay was conducted in which the dissolved compound was taken up at the cut leaf base and distributed within the leaf by the transpiration stream. Benzovindiflupyr significantly decreased leaf transpiration in a dose\dependent manner (Fig. ?(Fig.2).2). This effect was clearly visible already within 6 h of treatment at 50 and 100 ppm ai ( 0.05); for the two lower concentrations (3 and 10 ppm ai), transpiration hardly decreased within CDKN2B the first 6 h but decreased significantly ( 0.05) during the remaining 18 h of the experiment (data not shown). Analysis of photosynthesis by measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence did not show a significant impact of the treatment with benzovindiflupyr on the operating quantum efficiency of photosystem II (data not shown). Open in a separate window Figure 2 Benzovindiflupyr doseCresponse for the transpiration rate of detached wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Arina) L-779450 leaves between L-779450 0 and 24 h after treatment. The compound was fed via the transpiration stream. Values are mean SD of five replications. Different letters indicate significant differences between treatments at P 0.05. L-779450 In order to confirm this observation at the whole\plant level with benzovindiflupyr application comparable to that in the field, the transpiration of benzovindiflupyr\treated wheat plants was studied on an automated weighing and irrigation system L-779450 (Fig. ?(Fig.3a).3a). Benzovindiflupyr was applied foliarly at the recommended field rate (75 g ai ha\1) when plants were growing without water limitation. Within 1 day, transpiration had decreased by 5.7% ( 0.1) in benzovindiflupyr\treated plants compared with untreated control plants (Fig. ?(Fig.3b).3b). Three days after application, transpiration was 7.3% ( 0.05) lower in benzovindiflupyr\treated plants compared with controls; this effect was consistent for at least a further 3 days. When irrigation was withheld 8 days after application, transpiration decreased strongly as a result of the decreasing soil water content (Fig. ?(Fig.3a).3a). However, this transpiration L-779450 decrease was delayed in benzovindiflupyr\treated plants, resulting in a transiently higher transpiration rate compared with untreated control plants (Fig. ?(Fig.3c).3c). The reduction of transpiration in benzovindiflupyr\treated plants had no negative impact on biomass accumulation; at the end of the experiment, the shoot dry weight of benzovindiflupyr\treated plants was 6.34 g plant\1 and that of control plants was 6.31 g plant\1 [standard deviation (SD) = 0.41; coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.6%]. Open in a separate window Figure 3 Time course of the transpiration rate of control wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Taifun).